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ovulation), what are their causes, symptoms and how are they treated?
What are anovulatory cycles?
A normal menstrual cycle consists of menstruation (menstrual bleeding), follicular phase, ovulation (it occurs between 12 and 16 days from the first day of previous menstruation) and the luteal phase. However, when it comes to the anovulatory cycle, it usually proceeds similarly (in some women there is also no menstruation), except that it has no ovulation stage.
and the luteal phase.
Lack of ovulation - causes
Lack of ovulation is not a disease in itself, but only a symptom of various disorders occurring in the female body. Its causes include:
- The first years of puberty and the period after delivery - at this time, anovulatory cycles are completely normal, and the whole spontaneously normalizes after some time and does not require any treatment.
- Thyroid economy disorders - both hypothyroidism (most often Hashimoto's disease) and hyperthyroidism (most often Graves-Basedov's disease) may manifest as anovulation and other disorders of the menstrual cycle.
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) - occurs in about 10-15% of women during the reproductive period and is the most common cause of infertility.
- Anorexia or significant weight loss in a short time - the hormonal axis of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovaries (also called the sex axis) determines the correct course of the menstrual cycle. It is very sensitive to all kinds of caloric and fat deficits (under malnutrition, the synthesis of hormones forming the axis is inhibited).
- Ovarian changes - we can mention here all kinds of tumors, cysts or fibromas that disrupt the proper functioning of this organ.
- Long-term use of contraceptives, antihistamines, anti-emetic or psychotropic. These medications can reversibly disrupt the sexual axis as well as the ovaries themselves.
- Pituitary gland diseases - hypopituitarism, its inflammation, or tumors can lead to inhibition of the sexual axis.
- Stress, excessive physical exertion, or depression - these factors have an adverse effect on the woman's entire body and may also affect her fertility.
Anovulatory cycles - symptoms
Most women struggling with the problems of anovulatory cycles menstruates regularly. They only encourage them to visit a gynecologist problems with conceiving a child. However, in some patients, the lack of ovulation can be suspected based on:
- Cycles irregularity. Normal menstrual cycles last from 21 to 35 days. In the absence of ovulation, some women have both longer and shorter cycles.
- No elevated body temperature characteristic of ovulation. Correct ovulation is characterized by a sudden, one-day increase in body temperature by about 0.5 degree C.
- Change in monthly bleeding intensity. During anovulatory cycles, monthly bleeding may be more abundant than usual, more scanty or absent.
- No change in the nature of vaginal mucus. The constant presence of thick, sticky, whitish mucus is characteristic for anovulatory cycles. The second thing is the lack of change in his characters during the cycle.
Anovulatory cycles - treatment
The first step in treating anovulatory cycles is statement of the reason that is responsible for ita (based on a whole series of hormonal tests and the so-called ovulation test). Then eliminate it, if it is obviously possible. IN
in some cases this may prove relatively easy (e.g. substitution of ovulation suppressants). But in part, it requires long-term hormonal treatment (for example, in the course of polycystic ovary syndrome). It is estimated that the proceedings
this allows ovulation to be induced in about 90% of patients who have problems conceiving.
To sum up, single anovulatory cycles occur relatively often in women and usually go unnoticed until problems occur during pregnancy. Therefore, it is worth regularly visiting your gynecologist and report all disturbing symptoms to him. This will deepen the diagnosis at an early stage and avoid some of the complications of long-term anovulation and save you a lot of stress.